Chloride is a natural component and is formed when the element chlorine (a halogen) gains an electron or
when a compound such as hydrogen chloride is in its dissolved form. Chloride is widely distributed in nature
as salts. Though it is most prevalent in sea water, it permits rivers, lakes, and other freshwater systems also.
Some common chloride compounds found in natural water are sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride
(KCl), calcium chloride (CaCl2) and magnesium chloride (MgCl2). For its essentiality as an electrolyte to the
animals, it is sometimes referred as the â€œqueen of electrolytesâ€. But, higher concentration of chloride in
water is reported to be an indication of pollution and affects physiological processes of the organisms.
Chloride increases the electrical conductivity and corrosiveness of water. The relationship with water
temperature, bicarbonate and calcium is positive with this anion, but inverse correlations exist with pH and
total alkalinity. There are several techniques for chloride estimation, but removal processes of chloride from
water are expensive and energy-intensive.
Keyword : Chloride, freshwater, pollution, anion.
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