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Current Trends in Science and Technology

an Open Access Publication ISSN: 0976-9730 | 0976-9498

Zoology

Histopathological Study of the Gill of the Fish Ctenopharyngodon Idella Exposed To the Deltamethrin 11% EC, A Synthetic Pyrethroid

Dr. N. Gopala Rao, G. Srinivasa Rao, R. Bala Krishna Naik,. Satyanarayana
* Correspondence Author 1Department of Zoology Research guide and Aquaculture Acharya Nagarjuna University Nagarjuna Nagar-522 510, A.P. India nagallagopalarao@yahoo.com Tel .No: 9493239677. 2Department of Zoology and Aquaculture Acharya Nagarjuna University Nagarjuna Nagar 522510, AP India Email: sreegollu@gmail.com and gsr.anu.ac@gmail.com Tel. No. 8309692116 3Senior Research Fellow, UGC Department of Zoology and Aquaculture Acharya Nagarjuna University Nagarjuna Nagar 522510, AP India Email: rajikrish@gmail.com and razikrish@gmail.com Tel.No. 9705310297 4Principal Govt. Junior College Chagallu West Godavari Email: satyanarayana28sunnam@gmail.com Tel.No. 9908259712
Online First: May 17, 2018
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Abstract

A histopathological study of the gill of the fish Ctenopharyngodon idella is reported after exposure to sublethal concentration of Deltamethrin (1/10th of 96 h LC50 value 0.0172 of continuous flow through system), 11% EC, a synthetic pyrethroid, for 10 days.  The gills, both primary and secondary  filaments observed  bulging and distortions   Apart from this some  other alterations such as degenerative changes in the intralamellar cells and spaces, separation of epithelial layer from the central sinus of filaments and severe proliferation of epithelial cells and club shaped secondary lamellae as progressive degeneration of the gills are other pathological changes also noticed.

Keyword : Histopathology, Gill, Ctenopharyngodon idella,11% EC Deltamethrin, Primary and Secondary gill lamellae.

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May 17, 2018
Published
May 17, 2018
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References

1. Ahrar Khan, Latif Ahmad and Mohammad Zargham Khan. Haemato-Biochemical changes induced by pyrethroid insecticides in Avian, Fish and Mammalian Species. International Journal of Agricultural & Biology. 14(5): (2012), 834-842. 2. Anitha Susan, T., K. Sobha and K.S. Tilak. Toxicity and histopathological changes in the three Indian major carps Labeo rohita (Hamilton), Catla catla (Hamilton) and Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton) exposed to Fenvalerate. International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences 2(1): (2012), 18-32. 3. APHA, AWWA and WEF. Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water, 20th Edition, Cescri, L.S. Greenberg, A.E. and Eaton, A.D. (Eds.) American Public Health Association, American Water Work Association: Water Environment Federation, Washington DC, US (1998). 4. APHA. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater 21st edition. American Public Health Association American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation, Washington DC, USA (2005). 5. APHA, AWWA and WEF. Standard Methods for examination of water and wastewater 22nd edition, Washington American Public Health Association. American Public Health Association, American Water Work Association: Water Environment Federation, Washington DC, US (2012). 6. Bhattacharjee Parimitha and Suchimita Das. Toxicity of pesticide Deltamethrin to fish. Indian Journal of Applied Research. 4(5): 19-21, (2014). 7. Banaee, M, Sureda, A., Mirvagefei, A.R., Ahmadi, K.. Histopathological alterations induced by diazonin in rainbow trout Onchorynchus mykiss. International Journal of Environmental Research. 7(3): (2013) 735-744. 8. Butchiram, M.S., Vijayakumar, M. and Tilak, K.S.. Studies on the histopathological changes in selected tissues of fish Labeo rohita exposed to phenol. Journal of Environmental Biology. 34: (2013) 247-251. 9. Capkin E, Atinok I, Karahan S.. Water quality and fish size affect toxicity of endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, to rainbow trout, Chemosphere. 64(10): (2006) 1793-1800. 10. Cengiz, E.I. and Unlu, E. (2006). Sublethal effects of commercial deltamethrin on the structure of the gill, liver, gnt tissue after exposure to deltamethrin. Env. Toxicol. Phar.21: 246-253. 11. Cengiz, E.I. Gill and Kidney histopathology in the freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio after exposure to deltamethrin. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 22: (2006), 200-204. 12. Cengiz, E.I. and Unlü, E. Histopathological changes in the gills of mosquito fish Gambusia affinis exposed to Endosulphan. Bull. Env. Contam. Toxiol. and Pharmacol.68: (2002) 290-296. 13. Cengiz, E.I., Unlu, E. Histopathology of gills in Mosquito fish Gambusia affinis after long fern exposure to sublethal concentration of malathion. J. Env. Sci. Heal. 38: (2003), 581-589. 14. Diana, C., Cristiana, A.S., Diana, D., Huculeci, R. Marieta, C. and Anca, D.. Biochemical and histopathological effects of Deltamethrin exposure on gills of Carassius auratus Gibelio Pisces Cyprinidae Silent Livestock Breed Biotech. 40(1): (2007), 65-72. 15. Dobsikova et al. Effects of Cypermethrin on some haematological , biochemical and histopathological parameters of common carp (Cyprinus capio). Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2006, Dec 27: suppl 2: 100-105. 16. Figen Esin Kayhan, Güllü Kaymak and Nazan Deviz Yön (2013). Insecticide groups and their effects in Aquatic environment. Fen Bilimlari Dergist. 25(4): (2013), 167-83. 17. Hasibur Rehman, A.I. Thabiani Azia Shalini Segsu Zahid Khorshid, Abbas Anand Mohan and Abid A. Ansari. Systemic review on pyrethroid toxicity with special reference to deltamethrin. Journal of Entomology and Zoology. 2(6): (2014), 60-70. 18. Humason, G.L. Animal tissue technique (Eds. Freeman and Co.), 3rd Ed. San Francisco (1972). 19. Jothinarendiran, N. Effect of dimetheate pesticide on Oxygen consumption and gill histology of the fish Channa punctatus (Bloch.). Current Biotica. 5(4): (2012), 500-507. 20. Kan, Y., Cengiz, E.I., Ugurlu, P. and Yanar, M. The protective role of Vitamin-E on gill and liver tissue histopathology and Micronucleus frequencies in peripheral erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus exposed to Deltamethrin. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 34: (2012), 170-179. 21. Kaur Mandeep and Rajinder Jindal. SEM study of ultrastructural changes in branchial architecture of Ctenopharyngodon idella exposed to chloropyriphos. Archives. Biological Science. 68(2): (2016), 393-398. 22. Kaushik, Mundal, Bodhi Satwa Karmakar and Salma Haque. A review on effects of pyrethroid pesticides to fresh water fish behaviour and fish reproduction. Journal of Global Biosciences. 4: (2005), 2594-2598. 23. Maharajan, A., Usha, R., Paru, P.S., Ruchamani, Vijaya kumar, B.S., Ganapriya, V. and Kumarswamy, P. Sublethal effects of profenofos on the Indian major carp Catla catla Hamilton. International Journal of Pure and Applied Zoology. 1(2): (2013), 196-204. 24. Manjula Sree Veni, S. and Veeraiah, K. Effect of cypermethrin on oxygen consumption and Histopathology of fresh water fish Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton). IOSR – Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology. 8(10): (2014) pp.12-20. 25. Mohammad, R.A., Adel F. Tohamy Mohmoud A. Mamoud, Mohammed, A. Elhady and Mather M. Soliman (2016). Subchronic toxicity of Deltamethrin and treatment in nile tilapia fish. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 5(10): (2016), 28-52. 26. Neelima, P., Cyril, L., Arun Kumar, Chandrasekhara Rao, J. and Gopala Rao, N. Histopathological alterations in Gill, Liver and Kidney of Cyprinus carpio. International J. Advan. Science. 2(2): (2015), 34-40. 27. Prusty, A.K., Meena, D.K., Mohapatra, S., Panikar, P. Das, P. Gupta, S.K. and Behara, B.K. Synthetic Pyrethroids type II and fresh water fish culture perils and mitigation: A Review, International Aquatic Research.7: (2015)163-191. 28. Sayed, E.I., Saad, T.T., El Bahr, S.M. Subacute intoxification of Deltamethrin in Monsek Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus with special reference to clinical biochemical Toxicol.24: (2007), 212-217. 29. Shankar Murthy, K., Kiran, B.R., Venkateshwarlu, M. A review on toxicity of pesticides in fish. International Journal of Open Scientific Research. 1(1): (2013), 15-36. 30. Srivastav, A.K, Srivastava, S.K, Srivastav, S.K.. Impact of deltamethrin on serum calcium and inorganic phosphate of freshwater catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis. Bull. Env. Contam. Toxicol. 59: (1997), 841-846. 31. Staien, A.C., Muntaanu, M.C, Costin, D. Costache. Dinischiotu, A.. Histological changes in deltamethrin induced intoxication Carassius auratus gibelo pisces – cyprinidae. Biotech. Animal Husbandry. 23(5-6): 619-626. 32. Svobodova Z, Luskova V, Drastichova, M.J, Svoboda M, Labek V. (2003). Effect of deltamethrin on haematological indices of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Acta Veter. Bm. 72: (2007), 79-85. 33. Tamil Selvi, R. and Ilavazhan, M.. Histopathological changes in the gill tissues of the fish Catla catla exposed to sublethal concentrations of pesticide mythyle parathion and heavy metal ferrous sulphate. Biomedical & Pharmacology Journal. 5(2): (2012), 305-312. 34. Tilak, K.S., Rao, D. and Veeraiah, K.. Effects of chloropyrifos on histopathology of the fish Catla catla. Journal of Ecotoxicology and Env. Monitoring, 15(2): (2005), 127-140. 35. Tilak, K.S., Veeraiah, K. and Yacobu, K. Studies on the histopathological changes in the gill, liver and kidney of Ctenopharyngodon idella. Pollution Research. 20(3): (2001), 387-393. 36. Ullah, S., Zorriehzahra, M.J. A review of pesticides induced toxicity in fish. Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences. 3(1): (2015), 40-57. 37. Velisek J, Juraikovo J, Dosiskova R, Svobodovo Z, Plackova V, Machova J, Novotory L.. Effects of deltamethrin on rainbow trout. Env. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 23: (2007), 297-301. 38. Velisek, J. And Alzbeta Stara. The effects of pyrethroid and Traizonine pesticides on fish physiology, pesticides in modern world pests, control and pesticides exposure and toxicity assessment. (2014), 377-402. 39. Velisek, J., Wlason, T., Gomulka, P., Svobodova, Z., Dobsikov, A R., Novotny, L., Dudzik, M. Effects of cypermethrin on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Veterinary Medicine.51: (2006), 469-476. 40. Velumurugan, B. Selvanayagam, M. Cengiz, E.I. and Unlu, E. The effects of monocrotophos of different tissues of fresh water fish Cirrhinus mrigala. Bull. of Environ. Contam. and Toxicology. 78: (2007a), 450-458. 41. Velumurugan, B. Selvanayagam, M., Cengiz, E.I., Unlu, E. Histopathology of lambda cyhalothrin on tissues gill, kidney, liver and intestine of Cirrhinus mrigala. Env. Toxicology and Pharmacology. 24(3): (2007b), 286-291. 42. Velumurugan, B., Mathews, T., Cengiz, E.I.. Histopathological effects of cypermethrin on gill, liver and kidney of freshwater fish Clarias gariepinus. Burchell. 1822 and recovery after exposure. Environmental Technology. 30(13): (2009), 1453-1460. 43. Yanchava, A.V., Velcheva, L., Storyanova, S. And Georgieva, E.. Histological Biomarkers in fish as a tool in Ecological risk assessment and monitoring programmes: A Review: Applied Ecology and Env. Research. 14(1): (2015), 47-75. 44. Yildrim Ziynet, M., Caglan Karasu Benli, A., Mahmut Selvi, Ayhan Ozkul, Figen Erkoc Oner Kocak. Acute toxicity behavioural changes and histopathological effects of Deltamethrin on tissues Gills, Liver, Brain, Spleen, Kidney, Muscle, Skin of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fingerlings. Wiley interscience – Environmental Toxicology. (2006), 614-620 pp.
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References

1. Ahrar Khan, Latif Ahmad and Mohammad Zargham Khan. Haemato-Biochemical changes induced by pyrethroid insecticides in Avian, Fish and Mammalian Species. International Journal of Agricultural & Biology. 14(5): (2012), 834-842.
2. Anitha Susan, T., K. Sobha and K.S. Tilak. Toxicity and histopathological changes in the three Indian major carps Labeo rohita (Hamilton), Catla catla (Hamilton) and Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton) exposed to Fenvalerate. International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences 2(1): (2012), 18-32.
3. APHA, AWWA and WEF. Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water, 20th Edition, Cescri, L.S. Greenberg, A.E. and Eaton, A.D. (Eds.) American Public Health Association, American Water Work Association: Water Environment Federation, Washington DC, US (1998).
4. APHA. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater 21st edition. American Public Health Association American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation, Washington DC, USA (2005).
5. APHA, AWWA and WEF. Standard Methods for examination of water and wastewater 22nd edition, Washington American Public Health Association. American Public Health Association, American Water Work Association: Water Environment Federation, Washington DC, US (2012).
6. Bhattacharjee Parimitha and Suchimita Das. Toxicity of pesticide Deltamethrin to fish. Indian Journal of Applied Research. 4(5): 19-21, (2014).
7. Banaee, M, Sureda, A., Mirvagefei, A.R., Ahmadi, K.. Histopathological alterations induced by diazonin in rainbow trout Onchorynchus mykiss. International Journal of Environmental Research. 7(3): (2013) 735-744.
8. Butchiram, M.S., Vijayakumar, M. and Tilak, K.S.. Studies on the histopathological changes in selected tissues of fish Labeo rohita exposed to phenol. Journal of Environmental Biology. 34: (2013) 247-251.
9. Capkin E, Atinok I, Karahan S.. Water quality and fish size affect toxicity of endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, to rainbow trout, Chemosphere. 64(10): (2006) 1793-1800.
10. Cengiz, E.I. and Unlu, E. (2006). Sublethal effects of commercial deltamethrin on the structure of the gill, liver, gnt tissue after exposure to deltamethrin. Env. Toxicol. Phar.21: 246-253.
11. Cengiz, E.I. Gill and Kidney histopathology in the freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio after exposure to deltamethrin. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 22: (2006), 200-204.
12. Cengiz, E.I. and Unlü, E. Histopathological changes in the gills of mosquito fish Gambusia affinis exposed to Endosulphan. Bull. Env. Contam. Toxiol. and Pharmacol.68: (2002) 290-296.
13. Cengiz, E.I., Unlu, E. Histopathology of gills in Mosquito fish Gambusia affinis after long fern exposure to sublethal concentration of malathion. J. Env. Sci. Heal. 38: (2003), 581-589.
14. Diana, C., Cristiana, A.S., Diana, D., Huculeci, R. Marieta, C. and Anca, D.. Biochemical and histopathological effects of Deltamethrin exposure on gills of Carassius auratus Gibelio Pisces Cyprinidae Silent Livestock Breed Biotech. 40(1): (2007), 65-72.
15. Dobsikova et al. Effects of Cypermethrin on some haematological , biochemical and histopathological parameters of common carp (Cyprinus capio). Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2006, Dec 27: suppl 2: 100-105.
16. Figen Esin Kayhan, Güllü Kaymak and Nazan Deviz Yön (2013). Insecticide groups and their effects in Aquatic environment. Fen Bilimlari Dergist. 25(4): (2013), 167-83.
17. Hasibur Rehman, A.I. Thabiani Azia Shalini Segsu Zahid Khorshid, Abbas Anand Mohan and Abid A. Ansari. Systemic review on pyrethroid toxicity with special reference to deltamethrin. Journal of Entomology and Zoology. 2(6): (2014), 60-70.
18. Humason, G.L. Animal tissue technique (Eds. Freeman and Co.), 3rd Ed. San Francisco (1972).
19. Jothinarendiran, N. Effect of dimetheate pesticide on Oxygen consumption and gill histology of the fish Channa punctatus (Bloch.). Current Biotica. 5(4): (2012), 500-507.
20. Kan, Y., Cengiz, E.I., Ugurlu, P. and Yanar, M. The protective role of Vitamin-E on gill and liver tissue histopathology and Micronucleus frequencies in peripheral erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus exposed to Deltamethrin. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 34: (2012), 170-179.
21. Kaur Mandeep and Rajinder Jindal. SEM study of ultrastructural changes in branchial architecture of Ctenopharyngodon idella exposed to chloropyriphos. Archives. Biological Science. 68(2): (2016), 393-398.
22. Kaushik, Mundal, Bodhi Satwa Karmakar and Salma Haque. A review on effects of pyrethroid pesticides to fresh water fish behaviour and fish reproduction. Journal of Global Biosciences. 4: (2005), 2594-2598.
23. Maharajan, A., Usha, R., Paru, P.S., Ruchamani, Vijaya kumar, B.S., Ganapriya, V. and Kumarswamy, P. Sublethal effects of profenofos on the Indian major carp Catla catla Hamilton. International Journal of Pure and Applied Zoology. 1(2): (2013), 196-204.
24. Manjula Sree Veni, S. and Veeraiah, K. Effect of cypermethrin on oxygen consumption and Histopathology of fresh water fish Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton). IOSR – Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology. 8(10): (2014) pp.12-20.
25. Mohammad, R.A., Adel F. Tohamy Mohmoud A. Mamoud, Mohammed, A. Elhady and Mather M. Soliman (2016). Subchronic toxicity of Deltamethrin and treatment in nile tilapia fish. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 5(10): (2016), 28-52.
26. Neelima, P., Cyril, L., Arun Kumar, Chandrasekhara Rao, J. and Gopala Rao, N. Histopathological alterations in Gill, Liver and Kidney of Cyprinus carpio. International J. Advan. Science. 2(2): (2015), 34-40.
27. Prusty, A.K., Meena, D.K., Mohapatra, S., Panikar, P. Das, P. Gupta, S.K. and Behara, B.K. Synthetic Pyrethroids type II and fresh water fish culture perils and mitigation: A Review, International Aquatic Research.7: (2015)163-191.
28. Sayed, E.I., Saad, T.T., El Bahr, S.M. Subacute intoxification of Deltamethrin in Monsek Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus with special reference to clinical biochemical Toxicol.24: (2007), 212-217.
29. Shankar Murthy, K., Kiran, B.R., Venkateshwarlu, M. A review on toxicity of pesticides in fish. International Journal of Open Scientific Research. 1(1): (2013), 15-36.
30. Srivastav, A.K, Srivastava, S.K, Srivastav, S.K.. Impact of deltamethrin on serum calcium and inorganic phosphate of freshwater catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis. Bull. Env. Contam. Toxicol. 59: (1997), 841-846.
31. Staien, A.C., Muntaanu, M.C, Costin, D. Costache. Dinischiotu, A.. Histological changes in deltamethrin induced intoxication Carassius auratus gibelo pisces – cyprinidae. Biotech. Animal Husbandry. 23(5-6): 619-626.
32. Svobodova Z, Luskova V, Drastichova, M.J, Svoboda M, Labek V. (2003). Effect of deltamethrin on haematological indices of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Acta Veter. Bm. 72: (2007), 79-85.
33. Tamil Selvi, R. and Ilavazhan, M.. Histopathological changes in the gill tissues of the fish Catla catla exposed to sublethal concentrations of pesticide mythyle parathion and heavy metal ferrous sulphate. Biomedical & Pharmacology Journal. 5(2): (2012), 305-312.
34. Tilak, K.S., Rao, D. and Veeraiah, K.. Effects of chloropyrifos on histopathology of the fish Catla catla. Journal of Ecotoxicology and Env. Monitoring, 15(2): (2005), 127-140.
35. Tilak, K.S., Veeraiah, K. and Yacobu, K. Studies on the histopathological changes in the gill, liver and kidney of Ctenopharyngodon idella. Pollution Research. 20(3): (2001), 387-393.
36. Ullah, S., Zorriehzahra, M.J. A review of pesticides induced toxicity in fish. Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences. 3(1): (2015), 40-57.
37. Velisek J, Juraikovo J, Dosiskova R, Svobodovo Z, Plackova V, Machova J, Novotory L.. Effects of deltamethrin on rainbow trout. Env. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 23: (2007), 297-301.
38. Velisek, J. And Alzbeta Stara. The effects of pyrethroid and Traizonine pesticides on fish physiology, pesticides in modern world pests, control and pesticides exposure and toxicity assessment. (2014), 377-402.
39. Velisek, J., Wlason, T., Gomulka, P., Svobodova, Z., Dobsikov, A R., Novotny, L., Dudzik, M. Effects of cypermethrin on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Veterinary Medicine.51: (2006), 469-476.
40. Velumurugan, B. Selvanayagam, M. Cengiz, E.I. and Unlu, E. The effects of monocrotophos of different tissues of fresh water fish Cirrhinus mrigala. Bull. of Environ. Contam. and Toxicology. 78: (2007a), 450-458.
41. Velumurugan, B. Selvanayagam, M., Cengiz, E.I., Unlu, E. Histopathology of lambda cyhalothrin on tissues gill, kidney, liver and intestine of Cirrhinus mrigala. Env. Toxicology and Pharmacology. 24(3): (2007b), 286-291.
42. Velumurugan, B., Mathews, T., Cengiz, E.I.. Histopathological effects of cypermethrin on gill, liver and kidney of freshwater fish Clarias gariepinus. Burchell. 1822 and recovery after exposure. Environmental Technology. 30(13): (2009), 1453-1460.
43. Yanchava, A.V., Velcheva, L., Storyanova, S. And Georgieva, E.. Histological Biomarkers in fish as a tool in Ecological risk assessment and monitoring programmes: A Review: Applied Ecology and Env. Research. 14(1): (2015), 47-75.
44. Yildrim Ziynet, M., Caglan Karasu Benli, A., Mahmut Selvi, Ayhan Ozkul, Figen Erkoc Oner Kocak. Acute toxicity behavioural changes and histopathological effects of Deltamethrin on tissues Gills, Liver, Brain, Spleen, Kidney, Muscle, Skin of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fingerlings. Wiley interscience – Environmental Toxicology. (2006), 614-620 pp.
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