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Current Trends in Science and Technology

an Open Access Publication ISSN: 0976-9730 | 0976-9498

Zoology

Tracing the Biochemical Effects of Acetaminophen in Fish

Samita Kundu
Department of Zoology, Vivekananda College, 269 Diamond Harbour Road, Kolkata 700063, India
Online First: April 28, 2018
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Abstract

A new kind of aquatic contamination is on the rise, by which chemicals from medicines are getting into water bodies. Such pharmaceutical contamination might have the adverse potential of affecting aquatic life. As fishes are constantly exposed to all sorts of pollutants, they could be used as excellent biological markers. This brief study wanted to evaluate the effect of the highly consumed analgesic-antipyretic acetaminophen (paracetamol, PCM) in fish. Although apparently less toxic in pharmacologic dose, it is highly toxic in overdose. This is what happens in aquatic system where the accumulated concentration is regarded toxic to the inhabitants there. In fact, quite alarming results were observed under laboratory conditions. There were increased activities of the marker enzymes, alkaline phosphatase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase in liver conforming to its histological profile. Kidney tissues also showed degeneration. Moreover, catalase levels decreased denoting impairment in the antioxidant defense mechanism. Thus this study could be regarded as an important indicator of acetaminophen toxicity in fish, due to the observed potential of altering fish physiology and biochemistry.

Keyword : Acetaminophen, aquatic contamination, liver, enzymes, histology

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Apr 27, 2018
Published
Apr 28, 2018
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References

1. C.G. Daughton, T.A. Ternes, Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment: agents of subtle change?, Environ. Health Perspect. 107 (Suppl 6) (1999), 907- 938. 2. O.A.H. Jones, N. Voulvoulis, J.N. Lester, Human pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment a review, Environ. Technol. 22 (2001), 1383-1394. 3. K. Fent, A.A. Weston, D. Caminada, Ecotoxicology of human pharmaceuticals, Aquat. Toxicol. 76 (2006), 122-159. 4. R.T. Williams, J.C. Cook, Exposure to pharmaceuticals present in the environment, Drug Inform. J. 41 (2007), 133-141. 5. J.P. Bound, N. Voulvoulis, Household disposal of pharmaceuticals as a pathway for aquatic contamination in the United Kingdom, Environ. Health Perspect. 113 (2005), 1705-1711. 6. F. Jerker, Therapeutic Levels of Levonorgestrel Detected in Blood Plasma of Fish: Results from Screening Rainbow Trout Exposed to Treated Sewage Effluents, Environ. Sci Technol. 44 (2010), 2661-2666. 7. M. Soeffker, C.R. Tyler, Endocrine disrupting chemicals and sexual behaviors in fish—a critical review on effects and possible consequences, Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 42 (2012), 653-668. 8. S. Han, K. Choi, J. Kim, K. Ji, S. Kim, B. Ahn, J. Yun, K. Choi, J.S. Khim, X Zhang, J.P. Giesy, Endocrine disruption and consequences of chronic exposure to ibuprofen in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and freshwater cladocerans Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa, Aquat. Toxicol. 98 (2010), 256-264. 9. S. Reitman, S. Frankel, A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic α-oxaloacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases, Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 28 (1957), 56-63. 10. P.R.H. Kind, E.J. King, Estimation of Plasma Phosphatase by Determination of Hydrolysed Phenol with Amino-antipyrine, J. Clin. Path. 7 (1954), 322-326. 11. H. Aebi, Catalase in Vitro, Method Enzym. 105 (1984), 121-126. 12. O.H. Lowry, N.J. Rosebrough, A.L. Farr, R.J. Randall, Protein measurement with the Folin Phenol reagent, J. Biol. Chem. 193 (1951), 265-275. 13. K.D. Tripathy, Essentials of medical pharmacology, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd., New Delhi, 2003, pp. 181-182. 14. W. Chavin, Teleostean endocrine and para-endocrine alterations of utility in environmental studies, In: Chavin W. (Ed.) Responses of Fish to Environmental Changes, Springfield, Illinois, 1973, pp. 199-238. 15. A.R.D. Stebbing, A possible synthesis, In: B.L. Bayne (Ed.) The Effects of Stress and Pollution on Marine Animals, Praeger Publishers, New York, 1985, pp. 301-314. 16. J.T. Swee, S.M. Adams, D.E. Hinton, Histopathologic biomarkers in feral freshwater fish populations exposed to different types of contaminant stress, Aquat. Toxicol. 37 (1996) 51-70. 17. G.R. Scott, K.A. Sloman, The effects of environmental pollutants on complex fish behaviour: integrating behavioural and physiological indicators of toxicity, Aq. Toxicol. 68 (2004), 369-392. 18. P.B. Watkins, N. Kaplowitz, J.T. Slattery, C.R. Colonese, S.V. Colucci, P.W. Stewart, S.C. Harris, Aminotransferase elevations in healthy adults receiving 4 grams of acetaminophen daily: a randomized controlled trial, JAMA 296 (2006), 87-93. 19. M.A. Akanji, O.A. Olagoke, O.B. Oloyede, Effect of chronic consumption of metabisulphite on the integrity of rat kidney cellular system, Toxicol. 8 (1993), 173-179. 20. R. Molina, I. Moreno, S. Pichardo, A. Jos, R. Moyano, J.G. Monterde, A. Cameán, Acid and alkaline phosphatase activities and pathological changes induced in Tilapia fish (Oreochromis sp.) exposed subchronically to microcystins from toxic cyanobacterial blooms under laboratory conditions, Toxicon. 46 (2005), 725-735. 21. H. Umezawa, I.R. Hooper, In: Amino-glycoside antibiotic, Sranger-Verlag Berlin, Hadelberg, New York, 1982. 22. S.A. Kelly, C.M. Harvilla, T.C. Brady, K.H. Abramo, E.D. Levin, Oxidative stress in toxicology: Established mammalian and emerging piscine model systems, Environ. Health Perspect. 106 (1998), 375-383. 23. I. Ahmad, T. Hamid, M. Fatima, H.S. Chand, S.K. Jain, M. Athar, S. Raisuddin, Induction of hepatic antioxidants in freshwater catfish (Channa punctatus Bloch) is a biomarker of paper mill effluent exposure, Biochim. Biophysics Acta- Biomembr. 1523 (2000), 37-48. 24. J. Dorval, Role of glutathione redox cycle and catalase in defense against oxidative stress induced by endosulfan in adrenocortical cells of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 192 (2003), 191-200. 25. O.Yu Vasylkiv, O.I. Kubrak, K.B. Storey, V.I. Lushchak, Catalase activity as a potential vital biomarker of fish intoxication by the herbicide aminotriazole, Pesticide Biochem. Physiol. 101 (2011), 1-5. 26. A. Zenker, M.R. Cicero, F. Prestinaci, P. Bottoni, M. Carere, Bioaccumulation and biomagnification potential of pharmaceuticals with a focus to the aquatic environment, J. Environ. Manage. 133 (2014), 378-387.
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References

1. C.G. Daughton, T.A. Ternes, Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment: agents of subtle change?, Environ. Health Perspect. 107 (Suppl 6) (1999), 907- 938.
2. O.A.H. Jones, N. Voulvoulis, J.N. Lester, Human pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment a review, Environ. Technol. 22 (2001), 1383-1394.
3. K. Fent, A.A. Weston, D. Caminada, Ecotoxicology of human pharmaceuticals, Aquat. Toxicol. 76 (2006), 122-159.
4. R.T. Williams, J.C. Cook, Exposure to pharmaceuticals present in the environment, Drug Inform. J. 41 (2007), 133-141.
5. J.P. Bound, N. Voulvoulis, Household disposal of pharmaceuticals as a pathway for aquatic contamination in the United Kingdom, Environ. Health Perspect. 113 (2005), 1705-1711.
6. F. Jerker, Therapeutic Levels of Levonorgestrel Detected in Blood Plasma of Fish: Results from Screening Rainbow Trout Exposed to Treated Sewage Effluents, Environ. Sci Technol. 44 (2010), 2661-2666.
7. M. Soeffker, C.R. Tyler, Endocrine disrupting chemicals and sexual behaviors in fish—a critical review on effects and possible consequences, Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 42 (2012), 653-668.
8. S. Han, K. Choi, J. Kim, K. Ji, S. Kim, B. Ahn, J. Yun, K. Choi, J.S. Khim, X Zhang, J.P. Giesy, Endocrine disruption and consequences of chronic exposure to ibuprofen in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and freshwater cladocerans Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa, Aquat. Toxicol. 98 (2010), 256-264.
9. S. Reitman, S. Frankel, A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic α-oxaloacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases, Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 28 (1957), 56-63.
10. P.R.H. Kind, E.J. King, Estimation of Plasma Phosphatase by Determination of Hydrolysed Phenol with Amino-antipyrine, J. Clin. Path. 7 (1954), 322-326.
11. H. Aebi, Catalase in Vitro, Method Enzym. 105 (1984), 121-126.
12. O.H. Lowry, N.J. Rosebrough, A.L. Farr, R.J. Randall, Protein measurement with the Folin Phenol reagent, J. Biol. Chem. 193 (1951), 265-275.
13. K.D. Tripathy, Essentials of medical pharmacology, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd., New Delhi, 2003, pp. 181-182.
14. W. Chavin, Teleostean endocrine and para-endocrine alterations of utility in environmental studies, In: Chavin W. (Ed.) Responses of Fish to Environmental Changes, Springfield, Illinois, 1973, pp. 199-238.
15. A.R.D. Stebbing, A possible synthesis, In: B.L. Bayne (Ed.) The Effects of Stress and Pollution on Marine Animals, Praeger Publishers, New York, 1985, pp. 301-314.
16. J.T. Swee, S.M. Adams, D.E. Hinton, Histopathologic biomarkers in feral freshwater fish populations exposed to different types of contaminant stress, Aquat. Toxicol. 37 (1996) 51-70.
17. G.R. Scott, K.A. Sloman, The effects of environmental pollutants on complex fish behaviour: integrating behavioural and physiological indicators of toxicity, Aq. Toxicol. 68 (2004), 369-392.
18. P.B. Watkins, N. Kaplowitz, J.T. Slattery, C.R. Colonese, S.V. Colucci, P.W. Stewart, S.C. Harris, Aminotransferase elevations in healthy adults receiving 4 grams of acetaminophen daily: a randomized controlled trial, JAMA 296 (2006), 87-93.
19. M.A. Akanji, O.A. Olagoke, O.B. Oloyede, Effect of chronic consumption of metabisulphite on the integrity of rat kidney cellular system, Toxicol. 8 (1993), 173-179.
20. R. Molina, I. Moreno, S. Pichardo, A. Jos, R. Moyano, J.G. Monterde, A. Cameán, Acid and alkaline phosphatase activities and pathological changes induced in Tilapia fish (Oreochromis sp.) exposed subchronically to microcystins from toxic cyanobacterial blooms under laboratory conditions, Toxicon. 46 (2005), 725-735.
21. H. Umezawa, I.R. Hooper, In: Amino-glycoside antibiotic, Sranger-Verlag Berlin, Hadelberg, New York, 1982.
22. S.A. Kelly, C.M. Harvilla, T.C. Brady, K.H. Abramo, E.D. Levin, Oxidative stress in toxicology: Established mammalian and emerging piscine model systems, Environ. Health Perspect. 106 (1998), 375-383.
23. I. Ahmad, T. Hamid, M. Fatima, H.S. Chand, S.K. Jain, M. Athar, S. Raisuddin, Induction of hepatic antioxidants in freshwater catfish (Channa punctatus Bloch) is a biomarker of paper mill effluent exposure, Biochim. Biophysics Acta- Biomembr. 1523 (2000), 37-48.
24. J. Dorval, Role of glutathione redox cycle and catalase in defense against oxidative stress induced by endosulfan in adrenocortical cells of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 192 (2003), 191-200.
25. O.Yu Vasylkiv, O.I. Kubrak, K.B. Storey, V.I. Lushchak, Catalase activity as a potential vital biomarker of fish intoxication by the herbicide aminotriazole, Pesticide Biochem. Physiol. 101 (2011), 1-5.
26. A. Zenker, M.R. Cicero, F. Prestinaci, P. Bottoni, M. Carere, Bioaccumulation and biomagnification potential of pharmaceuticals with a focus to the aquatic environment, J. Environ. Manage. 133 (2014), 378-387.
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