Groundwater is a fundamental segment of the Earthâ€™s water resources, about 25% of the planetâ€™s overall fresh water supply, while surface water stored in rivers, lakes and soil moisture accounts for less than 1%. Groundwater and surface water are often closely interconnected, so when surface water becomes polluted, groundwater can become contaminated as well.
Water is the basis of the life of all living beings. With the development of modern human civilization, the problem of water pollution has become a serious issue. There is a growing trend of industrialization and urbanization. The villages are fast being transformed into cities and urban clusters with the establishment of various industries in and around, leading to over-exploitation and contamination of water resources. Initially, when various technologies were not developed, the people used to live in the lap of the nature, but with the fast paced development and emergence of industrialization, water pollution has assumed alarming proportions.
Water pollution is a major global problem which requires ongoing evaluation and revision of water resource policy at all levels (international down to individual aquifers and wells). It has been suggested that it is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases, and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14,000 people daily. An estimated 580 people in India die of water pollution related illness every day. In addition to the acute problems of water pollution in developing countries, developed countries continue to struggle with pollution problems. Water is typically referred to as polluted when it is impaired by anthropogenic contaminants and either does not support a human use, such as drinking water, or undergoes a marked shift in its ability to support its constituent biotic communities.
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