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Current Trends in Science and Technology

an Open Access Publication ISSN: 0976-9730 | 0976-9498

Botany (Plant Science)

Antimicrobial Efficacy of Bark Extracts of Wild Trees - Accacia nillotica (L.), Azadirachta indica (L.) and Ziziphus mauritiana (Lam.) against pathogens

D. K. Shrivastava
Department of Botany & Microbiology, Govt. E. Raghavendra Rao Postgraduate Science College, Bilaspur (Chhattisgarh)
Online First: February 13, 2018
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Abstract

Indeed about 25% of the prescription drugs contain at least one active ingredient derived from plant material. The use of plant extracts and photo-chemicals both with known antimicrobial properties can be of great importance in therapeutic treatments. Some extracts were used to combat the disease as well as have potential to control microbial activities. The present study was under taken to assess the potential of Azardirachta indica, Acacia nilotica and Ziziphus maurtiana as antimicrobial agents in relation with various important bio-molecules and to check their correlation as antimicrobial agent. The main objective of this study was in vitro evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal efficacy of three wild trees (Neem, Babool and Ber), which bark were processed to form the methanol and hot water extract and its antifungal potential was tested against two pathogenic bacteria - E. coli - ATCC10536 and Staphylococcus aureus - ATCC 25923 and fungi - Aspergillus flavus and  Candida albicans. Bark extracts of all three wild plants - Accacia nilotica, Azadirachta indica, and Ziziphus mauritiana, exhibited good inhibitory efficacy against both pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Finding of the present study revealed that the use of these products would be cheap and convenient adjuvant to pharmaceutical antimicrobial products.

Keyword : Wild plant, Antifungal activities, Antibacterial activities Bark extracts.

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Feb 12, 2018
Published
Feb 13, 2018
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References

1. Akhtar, M. S., Degaga, B. and Azam, T. (2014): Antimicrobial activity of essential oils extracted from medicinal plants against the pathogenic microorganisms: a review. Biological Sciences and Pharmaceutical Research. 2014; 2(1):1–7. 2. Alaribe, C. S., Shode, F., Coker, H. A. B., Ayoola, G., Sunday, A., Singh, N., Iwuanyanwu, S. (2011); Antimicrobial Activities of Hexane Extract and Ducussatin from Stembark Extract of Ficus congensis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12(4):2750-2756. 3. Archana, Jatawa S., Paul R. and Tiwari, A. (2011): Indian medicinalplants: A rich source of natural immuno-modulator. Int. J. Pharmacol.,7: 198-205. 4. Arumugam, G., Swamy, M. K. and Sinniah U. R. (2016): Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng: botanical, phytochemical, pharmacological and nutritional significance. Molecules. 21(4):p. 369. 5. Ayodele, S. M, Ilondu, E. M., Onwubolu, N. C. (2009): Antifungal properties of some locally used spices In Nigeria against some rot fungi. Afr. J.Plant Sci., 3(6): 139-141. 6. Banso, A. (2009): Phytochemical and antibacterial investigation of bark extracts of Acacia nilotica. J. Med. Plant Res. 3(2):082-085. 7. Basaglia, G., Carretto, E., Barbarini, D., Moras, L., Scalone, S., Marone, P., De Paoli, P. (2002). Catheter-Related Bacteremia Due to Kocuria Kristinae in a Patient with Ovarian Cancer. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40(1):311-313. 8. Beuchat, L. R., and D. A. Golden. (1989): Antimicrobials occurring naturally in foods. Food Technol. 43:134-142. 9. Bisi-Johnson, M. A., Obi, C. L., Kambizi, L., Nkomo, M. (2010): A survey of indigenous herbal diarrhoeal remedies of O.R. Tambo district, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. J. Biotechnol. 9(8):1245-1254. 10. Chang, H. W. (1995): Antibacterial effect of spices and vegetables. Food Industries. 27:53-61. 11. Dahot, U. M. (1998): Antimicrobial activities of small Protein of Moringa oleiferaleaves. J. Islamic Acad. Sci., 11: 1-11. 12. Danahap, L. S., Akueshi, C. O. (2005): Antimicrobial activity of Portulacaoleraceae L. on infective yeasts isolated from soil samples in Jos,Nigeria. Nig. J. Bot., 18: 268-272. 13. Darfeuille-Michaud, A. and Colombel, J. (2008): Pathogenic Escherichia coli in inflammatory bowel diseases: Proceedings of the 1st International Meeting on E. coli and IBD, June 2007, Lille France. J. Croh. Col. 2(3):255-262. 14. Del Campo, J., M. J. Amiot, and C. Nguyen-The. (2000): Antimicrobial effect of rosemary extract. J. food protection. 63:1359-1368. 15. Duschatzky, C. B., Possetto, M. L., Talarico, L. B. (2005): Evaluation of chemical and antiviral properties of essential oils from South American plants. Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy. 2005; 16(4):247–251. 16. Ekpo, B. A. J., Ajibesin, K. A., Bala, D. N. I., Nwafor, P. (2007): Antimicrobial activities of the extracts and fractions of TriumfettacordifoliaA. Rich (Tiliaceae). Nig. J. Bot., 20(1): 181 – 186. 17. Ekpo, M. A., Etim PC (2009): Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic andaqueous extracts of Sidaacutaon microorganisms from skininfections. J.Med. Plants Res., 3(9): 621-624. 18. Eldeen, I.M.S., Elgorashi, E.E., Van Staden, J. (2005): Antibacterial, antiinflammatory, anti-cholinesterase and mutagenic effects of extracts obtained from some trees used in South African traditional medicine. J. Ethnopharmacol. 102(2005) 457-464 19. Hammer, K. A., Carson C. F., Riley T. V. (1999): Antimicrobial activity ofessential oils and other plant extracts. J. Appl. Microbiol. 86(6): 985. 20. Hostettmann, K. (1999): Strategy for the biological and chemicalevaluation of plant extracts. Pure Appl. Chem. 70(11): 1-9. 21. Hsieh, P. C. (2000): Antimicrobial effect of cinnamon extract. Taiwanese Journal of Agricultural chemistry and Food Science. 38:184-193. 22. Hsieh, P.C., J. L. Mau, and S. H. 2001. Antimicrobial effect of various combinations of plantextracts. Food Microbiol.. 18:35-43. 23. Juven, B. J., Kanner, J., Schved,F. and Weisslowicz, H. (1994): Factors that interact with the antibacterial action of thyme essential oil and its active constituents. J. App Bacteriol. 76:626-631. 24. Martin, G. J. (1995): Ethnobotany: A methods manual. Chapman & Hall, New York, N.Y. 25. Mbolekwa, B. N., Kambizi, L. , Songca, S. P. and Oluwafemi, O. S. (2014): Antibacterial activity of the stem bark extracts of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. African journal of microbiology research 8(2): Pp. 211-216. 26. Okungbowa, F. I., Edema, N. E. (2007): Antifungal activities of leaf extracts from six Asteraceous plants against Fusariumoxysporium. Nig. J. Bot., 20(1): 45-49. 27. Owoyale, J. A., Olatunji, G. A, Oguntoye, S. O. (2005): Antifungal and Antibacteria Activities of an Alcoholic Extract of Sennaalata Leaves.J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage., 9(3) 105-107. 28. Swamy, M.. K. , Akhtar, M. S. and Sinniah, U. R. (2016): Antimicrobial Properties of Plant Essential Oils against Human Pathogens and Their Mode of Action: An Updated Review. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. Pp. 3012 -3021. 29. Terras, F. R.G., Eggermont, K., Kovaleva, V., Raikhel, N. V., Osborn, R. W., Kester, A., Rees, S. B., Torrekens, S., Leuven, F. V., Vanderieyden, J., Cammue, B. P. A., Broekaert, W. F. (1995): Small cysteine rich antifungalproteins from radish: Their role in host defense. Plant Cell, 7: 573-588. 30. Tiwari, R. K. S., Singh, A., Das, K., Sinha, A. (2007): Efficacy of extracts of medicinal plants against Rhizoctoniasolani. Ann. Plant Prot. Sci. 15(2): 460-539. 31. Uniyal, S. K., Singh, K. N., Jamwa, .l P., Lal, B. (2006): Traditional use of medicinal plants among the tribal communities of ChhotaBhangal,WesternHimalalyan. J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed., 2: 1-14. 32. Zaika, L. L. (1988): Spices and herbs: their antimicrobial activity and itsdetermination. J. of Food Safety. 9: 97-118.
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References

1. Akhtar, M. S., Degaga, B. and Azam, T. (2014): Antimicrobial activity of essential oils extracted from medicinal plants against the pathogenic microorganisms: a review. Biological Sciences and Pharmaceutical Research. 2014; 2(1):1–7.
2. Alaribe, C. S., Shode, F., Coker, H. A. B., Ayoola, G., Sunday, A., Singh, N., Iwuanyanwu, S. (2011); Antimicrobial Activities of Hexane Extract and Ducussatin from Stembark Extract of Ficus congensis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12(4):2750-2756.
3. Archana, Jatawa S., Paul R. and Tiwari, A. (2011): Indian medicinalplants: A rich source of natural immuno-modulator. Int. J. Pharmacol.,7: 198-205.
4. Arumugam, G., Swamy, M. K. and Sinniah U. R. (2016): Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng: botanical, phytochemical, pharmacological and nutritional significance. Molecules. 21(4):p. 369.
5. Ayodele, S. M, Ilondu, E. M., Onwubolu, N. C. (2009): Antifungal properties of some locally used spices In Nigeria against some rot fungi. Afr. J.Plant Sci., 3(6): 139-141.
6. Banso, A. (2009): Phytochemical and antibacterial investigation of bark extracts of Acacia nilotica. J. Med. Plant Res. 3(2):082-085.
7. Basaglia, G., Carretto, E., Barbarini, D., Moras, L., Scalone, S., Marone, P., De Paoli, P. (2002). Catheter-Related Bacteremia Due to Kocuria Kristinae in a Patient with Ovarian Cancer. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40(1):311-313.
8. Beuchat, L. R., and D. A. Golden. (1989): Antimicrobials occurring naturally in foods. Food Technol. 43:134-142.
9. Bisi-Johnson, M. A., Obi, C. L., Kambizi, L., Nkomo, M. (2010): A survey of indigenous herbal diarrhoeal remedies of O.R. Tambo district, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. J. Biotechnol. 9(8):1245-1254.
10. Chang, H. W. (1995): Antibacterial effect of spices and vegetables. Food Industries. 27:53-61.
11. Dahot, U. M. (1998): Antimicrobial activities of small Protein of Moringa oleiferaleaves. J. Islamic Acad. Sci., 11: 1-11.
12. Danahap, L. S., Akueshi, C. O. (2005): Antimicrobial activity of Portulacaoleraceae L. on infective yeasts isolated from soil samples in Jos,Nigeria. Nig. J. Bot., 18: 268-272.
13. Darfeuille-Michaud, A. and Colombel, J. (2008): Pathogenic Escherichia coli in inflammatory bowel diseases: Proceedings of the 1st International Meeting on E. coli and IBD, June 2007, Lille France. J. Croh. Col. 2(3):255-262.
14. Del Campo, J., M. J. Amiot, and C. Nguyen-The. (2000): Antimicrobial effect of rosemary extract. J. food protection. 63:1359-1368.
15. Duschatzky, C. B., Possetto, M. L., Talarico, L. B. (2005): Evaluation of chemical and antiviral properties of essential oils from South American plants. Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy. 2005; 16(4):247–251.
16. Ekpo, B. A. J., Ajibesin, K. A., Bala, D. N. I., Nwafor, P. (2007): Antimicrobial activities of the extracts and fractions of TriumfettacordifoliaA. Rich (Tiliaceae). Nig. J. Bot., 20(1): 181 – 186.
17. Ekpo, M. A., Etim PC (2009): Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic andaqueous extracts of Sidaacutaon microorganisms from skininfections. J.Med. Plants Res., 3(9): 621-624.
18. Eldeen, I.M.S., Elgorashi, E.E., Van Staden, J. (2005): Antibacterial, antiinflammatory, anti-cholinesterase and mutagenic effects of extracts obtained from some trees used in South African traditional medicine. J. Ethnopharmacol. 102(2005) 457-464
19. Hammer, K. A., Carson C. F., Riley T. V. (1999): Antimicrobial activity ofessential oils and other plant extracts. J. Appl. Microbiol. 86(6): 985.
20. Hostettmann, K. (1999): Strategy for the biological and chemicalevaluation of plant extracts. Pure Appl. Chem. 70(11): 1-9.
21. Hsieh, P. C. (2000): Antimicrobial effect of cinnamon extract. Taiwanese Journal of Agricultural chemistry and Food Science. 38:184-193.
22. Hsieh, P.C., J. L. Mau, and S. H. 2001. Antimicrobial effect of various combinations of plantextracts. Food Microbiol.. 18:35-43.
23. Juven, B. J., Kanner, J., Schved,F. and Weisslowicz, H. (1994): Factors that interact with the antibacterial action of thyme essential oil and its active constituents. J. App Bacteriol. 76:626-631.
24. Martin, G. J. (1995): Ethnobotany: A methods manual. Chapman & Hall, New York, N.Y.
25. Mbolekwa, B. N., Kambizi, L. , Songca, S. P. and Oluwafemi, O. S. (2014): Antibacterial activity of the stem bark extracts of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. African journal of microbiology research 8(2): Pp. 211-216.
26. Okungbowa, F. I., Edema, N. E. (2007): Antifungal activities of leaf extracts from six Asteraceous plants against Fusariumoxysporium. Nig. J. Bot., 20(1): 45-49.
27. Owoyale, J. A., Olatunji, G. A, Oguntoye, S. O. (2005): Antifungal and Antibacteria Activities of an Alcoholic Extract of Sennaalata Leaves.J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage., 9(3) 105-107.
28. Swamy, M.. K. , Akhtar, M. S. and Sinniah, U. R. (2016): Antimicrobial Properties of Plant Essential Oils against Human Pathogens and Their Mode of Action: An Updated Review. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. Pp. 3012 -3021.
29. Terras, F. R.G., Eggermont, K., Kovaleva, V., Raikhel, N. V., Osborn, R. W., Kester, A., Rees, S. B., Torrekens, S., Leuven, F. V., Vanderieyden, J., Cammue, B. P. A., Broekaert, W. F. (1995): Small cysteine rich antifungalproteins from radish: Their role in host defense. Plant Cell, 7: 573-588.
30. Tiwari, R. K. S., Singh, A., Das, K., Sinha, A. (2007): Efficacy of extracts of medicinal plants against Rhizoctoniasolani. Ann. Plant Prot. Sci. 15(2): 460-539.
31. Uniyal, S. K., Singh, K. N., Jamwa, .l P., Lal, B. (2006): Traditional use of medicinal plants among the tribal communities of ChhotaBhangal,WesternHimalalyan. J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed., 2: 1-14.
32. Zaika, L. L. (1988): Spices and herbs: their antimicrobial activity and itsdetermination. J. of Food Safety. 9: 97-118.
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