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Current Trends in Science and Technology

an Open Access Publication ISSN: 0976-9730 | 0976-9498

Physics

Amperometric detection of urea by PANI and Ppy based on nanocomposite graphite paste electrode modified with AgNO3NPs

K.S. Paithankar, V.B. Deshmukh, U.N. Shelkea, S.B. Iyyera, V.K. Gadeb
aDepartment of Physics Research Center, Ahmednagar College Ahmednagar(M.S.) India bDepartment of Physics, Shri Anand College, Pathardi (M.S.) India
Online First: January 30, 2018
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Abstract

A novel amperometric urea biosensor has been developed for selective and quantitative recognition of urea by immobilizing urease onto polyaniline(PANI) and polypyrrole(Ppy) based nanocomposite graphite paste with silver nitrate (AgNO3) nanoparticles(NPs) electrode and monitoring the amperometric response caused by the immobilized urease reaction system. Urease immobilization on electrode was investigated using aamperometric method, and factors affecting its immobilization such as concentration of urease, pH was discussed in detail. Organized materials were characterized by analytical techniques such as UV-Vis, XRD and FE-SEM analysis. The performance of the developed urea biosensor was evaluated for polyaniline and polypyrrole, obtained urea biosensor exhibited shorter response time (3 s), wider linear range, lower detection limitand good stability with about 95% of the original response signal retained after 2 month for PANI

Keyword : Amperometric; biosensor; immobilization.

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Jan 30, 2018
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Jan 30, 2018
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References

1. I. Svancara, K. Vytras,ˇ K. Kalcher, A. Walcarius, J. Wang, Electroanalysis 21 (2009) 7–28. 2. Nayan S. Gadhari, Bankim J. Sanghavi, Ashwini K. SrivastavaAnalyticachimecaActa 703(2011)31-40. 3. B. Lakard, G. Herlem, S. Lakard, A. Antoniou, B. Fahys, Urea potentiomet-ric biosensor based on modified electrodes with urease immobilized on polyethylenimine films, Biosens. Bioelectron. 19 (2004) 1641–1647. 4. A. Sehitogullari, A.H. Uslan, Preparation of a potentiometric immobilized urease electrode and urea determination in serum, Talanta 57 (2002) 1039–1044. 5. S.B. Adeloju, S.J. Shaw, Polypyrrole-based potentiometric biosensor for urea, part 2, Anal. Chem. Acta 281 (1993) 621–627. 6. Audrey Sassolas, Beatriz Prieto-Simón, Jean-Louis MartyAmerican Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 3, (2012) 210-232. 7. D. K. Bandgar, G. D. Khuspe, R. C. Pawar, C. S. Lee, V. B. Patil Facile and novel route for preparation of a no structured polyaniline (PANI) thin electrodes Applied Nanoscience 4, (1), (2014) 27-36. 8. S.K. Shukla, AnandBharadvaj, AshutoshTiwari, G.K. Parashar, G.C. Dubey Synthesis and characterization of highly crystalline polyaniline electrode promising for humid sensor Adv. Mat. Letts. 1(2) (2010)129-134. 9. V.K. Gade, D.J. Shirale, P.D. Gaikwad, P.A. Savale, K.P. Kakde, H.J. Kharat, M.D. Shirsat, Immobilization of GOD on electrochemically synthesized Ppy–PVS composite film by cross-linking via gluteraldehyde for determination of glucose. Reactive & Functional Polymers 66 (2006) 1420–1426. 10. Rajesh, V. Bisht, W. Takashima, K. Kaneto, An amperometric urea biosensor based on covalent immobilization of urease onto an electrochemically pre-pared copolymer poly(N-3-aminopropyl pyrrole-co-pyrrole) film, Biomaterials 26 (2005) 3683–3690. 11. B. Xie, B. Danielsson, An integrated thermal biosensor array for multianalyte determination demonstrated with glucose, urea and penicillin, Anal. Lett. 29 (1996) 1921–1932. 12. B. Xie, M. Mecklenburg, B. Danielsson, O. Ohman, P. Nolin, F. Winquist, Develop-ment of an integrated thermal biosensor for the simultaneous determination of multiple analytes, Analyst 120 (1995) 155–160. 13. S.P. Fulton, C.L. Cooney, J.C. Waever, Thermal enzyme probe with differential temperature measurements in a laminar flow-through cell, Anal. Chem. 52 (1980) 505–508. 14. S.B. Adeloju, S.J. Shaw, G.G. Wallace, Polypyrrole-based amperometric flow injection biosensor for urea, Anal. Chim. Acta 323 (1996) 107–113. 15. F. Kuralay, H. Ozyoruk, A. Yildiz, Amperometric enzyme electrode for urea determination using immobilized urease in poly(vinylferrocenium) film, Sens. Actuators B 114 (2006) 500–506. 16. P. Bertocchi, D. Compagnone, G. Palleshi, Amperometric ammonium ion and urea determination with enzyme-based probes, Biosens. Bioelectron. 11 (1996) 1–11. 17. Rajesh, V. Bisht, W. Takashima, K. Kaneto, Development of a potentiometric urea biosensor based on copolymer poly(N-3-aminopropyl pyrrole-co-pyrrole) film, React. Funct. Polym. 62 (2005) 51–59. 18. S.B. Adeloju, S.J. Shaw, G.G. Wallace, Polypyrrole-based potentiometric biosensor for urea: part 2. Analytical optimization, Anal. Chim. Acta 281 (1993) 621–627. 19. S. Komaba, M. Seyama, T. Momma, T. Osaka, Potentiometric biosensor for urea based on electropolymerizedelectroinactivepolypyrrole, Electrochim. Acta 42 (1997) 383–388. 20. M. Battilotti, C. Colapicchioni, I. Giannini, F. Porcelli, L. Campanella, M. Cordatore, F. Mazzei, M. Tomassetti, Characterization of biosensors based on membranes containing a conducting polymer, Anal. Chim. Acta 221 (1989) 157–161 21. N.F. Sheppard Jr., D.J. Mears, A. Guiseppi-Elie, Model of an immobilized enzyme conductimetric urea biosensor, Biosens. Bioeletron. 11 (1996) 967–979. 22. A.S. Jdanova, S. Poyard, A.P. Soldatkin, N. Jaffrezic-Renault, C. Martelet, Conduc-tometric urea sensor. Use of additional membranes for the improvement of its analytical characteristics, Anal. Chim. Acta 321 (1996) 35–40. 23. M.M. Castillo-Ortega, D.E. Rodriguez, J.C. Encinas, M. Plascencia, F.A. Mendez-Velarde, R. Olayo, Conductometric uric acid and urea biosensor prepared from electroconductive polyaniline–poly(n-butyl methacrylate) composites, Sens. Actuators B 85 (2005) 19–25. 24. R. Konck, T. Lenarczuk, A. Radomska, S. Glab, Optical biosensors based on Prus-sian Blue films, Analyst 126 (2001) 1080–1085. 25. C. Stamm, K. Seiler, W. Simmon, Enzymatic biosensor for urea based on an ammonium ion-selective bulk optode membrane, Anal. Chim. Acta 282 (1993) 229–237. 26. D.P.A. Correia, J.M.C.S. Magalhaes, A.A.S.C. Machado, Array of potentiometric sensors for simultaneous analysis of urea and potassium, Talanta 67 (2005) 773–782. 27. B. Lui, R. Hu, J. Deng, Studies on a potentiometric urea biosensor based on an ammonia electrode and urease, immobilized on a -aluminum oxide matrix, Anal. Chim. Acta 341 (1997) 161–169. 28. T. Osaka, S. Komaba, M. Seyama, K. Tanabe, High-sensitivity urea sensor based on the composite film of electroinactivepolypyrrole with polyion complex, Sens. Actuators B 36 (1996) 463–469. 29. A.P. Soldatkin, J. Montorial, W. Sant, C. Martelet, N. Jaffrezic-Renault, A novel urea sensitive biosensor with extended dynamic range based on recombinant urease and ISFETs, Biosens. Bioelectron. 19 (2003) 131–135. 30. S. Zamponi, B.L. Ciero, M. Mascini, L.D. Ciana, S. Sacco, Urea solid-state biosensor suitable for continuous dialysis control, Talanta 43 (1996) 1373–1377.
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References

1. I. Svancara, K. Vytras,ˇ K. Kalcher, A. Walcarius, J. Wang, Electroanalysis 21 (2009) 7–28.
2. Nayan S. Gadhari, Bankim J. Sanghavi, Ashwini K. SrivastavaAnalyticachimecaActa 703(2011)31-40.
3. B. Lakard, G. Herlem, S. Lakard, A. Antoniou, B. Fahys, Urea potentiomet-ric biosensor based on modified electrodes with urease immobilized on polyethylenimine films, Biosens. Bioelectron. 19 (2004) 1641–1647.
4. A. Sehitogullari, A.H. Uslan, Preparation of a potentiometric immobilized urease electrode and urea determination in serum, Talanta 57 (2002) 1039–1044.
5. S.B. Adeloju, S.J. Shaw, Polypyrrole-based potentiometric biosensor for urea, part 2, Anal. Chem. Acta 281 (1993) 621–627.
6. Audrey Sassolas, Beatriz Prieto-Simón, Jean-Louis MartyAmerican Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 3, (2012) 210-232.
7. D. K. Bandgar, G. D. Khuspe, R. C. Pawar, C. S. Lee, V. B. Patil Facile and novel route for preparation of a no structured polyaniline (PANI) thin electrodes Applied Nanoscience 4, (1), (2014) 27-36.
8. S.K. Shukla, AnandBharadvaj, AshutoshTiwari, G.K. Parashar, G.C. Dubey Synthesis and characterization of highly crystalline polyaniline electrode promising for humid sensor Adv. Mat. Letts. 1(2) (2010)129-134.
9. V.K. Gade, D.J. Shirale, P.D. Gaikwad, P.A. Savale, K.P. Kakde, H.J. Kharat, M.D. Shirsat, Immobilization of GOD on electrochemically synthesized Ppy–PVS composite film by cross-linking via gluteraldehyde for determination of glucose. Reactive & Functional Polymers 66 (2006) 1420–1426.
10. Rajesh, V. Bisht, W. Takashima, K. Kaneto, An amperometric urea biosensor based on covalent immobilization of urease onto an electrochemically pre-pared copolymer poly(N-3-aminopropyl pyrrole-co-pyrrole) film, Biomaterials 26 (2005) 3683–3690.
11. B. Xie, B. Danielsson, An integrated thermal biosensor array for multianalyte determination demonstrated with glucose, urea and penicillin, Anal. Lett. 29 (1996) 1921–1932.
12. B. Xie, M. Mecklenburg, B. Danielsson, O. Ohman, P. Nolin, F. Winquist, Develop-ment of an integrated thermal biosensor for the simultaneous determination of multiple analytes, Analyst 120 (1995) 155–160.
13. S.P. Fulton, C.L. Cooney, J.C. Waever, Thermal enzyme probe with differential temperature measurements in a laminar flow-through cell, Anal. Chem. 52 (1980) 505–508.
14. S.B. Adeloju, S.J. Shaw, G.G. Wallace, Polypyrrole-based amperometric flow injection biosensor for urea, Anal. Chim. Acta 323 (1996) 107–113.
15. F. Kuralay, H. Ozyoruk, A. Yildiz, Amperometric enzyme electrode for urea determination using immobilized urease in poly(vinylferrocenium) film, Sens. Actuators B 114 (2006) 500–506.
16. P. Bertocchi, D. Compagnone, G. Palleshi, Amperometric ammonium ion and urea determination with enzyme-based probes, Biosens. Bioelectron. 11 (1996) 1–11.
17. Rajesh, V. Bisht, W. Takashima, K. Kaneto, Development of a potentiometric urea biosensor based on copolymer poly(N-3-aminopropyl pyrrole-co-pyrrole) film, React. Funct. Polym. 62 (2005) 51–59.
18. S.B. Adeloju, S.J. Shaw, G.G. Wallace, Polypyrrole-based potentiometric biosensor for urea: part 2. Analytical optimization, Anal. Chim. Acta 281 (1993) 621–627.
19. S. Komaba, M. Seyama, T. Momma, T. Osaka, Potentiometric biosensor for urea based on electropolymerizedelectroinactivepolypyrrole, Electrochim. Acta 42 (1997) 383–388.
20. M. Battilotti, C. Colapicchioni, I. Giannini, F. Porcelli, L. Campanella, M. Cordatore, F. Mazzei, M. Tomassetti, Characterization of biosensors based on membranes containing a conducting polymer, Anal. Chim. Acta 221 (1989) 157–161
21. N.F. Sheppard Jr., D.J. Mears, A. Guiseppi-Elie, Model of an immobilized enzyme conductimetric urea biosensor, Biosens. Bioeletron. 11 (1996) 967–979.
22. A.S. Jdanova, S. Poyard, A.P. Soldatkin, N. Jaffrezic-Renault, C. Martelet, Conduc-tometric urea sensor. Use of additional membranes for the improvement of its analytical characteristics, Anal. Chim. Acta 321 (1996) 35–40.

23. M.M. Castillo-Ortega, D.E. Rodriguez, J.C. Encinas, M. Plascencia, F.A. Mendez-Velarde, R. Olayo, Conductometric uric acid and urea biosensor prepared from electroconductive polyaniline–poly(n-butyl methacrylate) composites, Sens. Actuators B 85 (2005) 19–25.
24. R. Konck, T. Lenarczuk, A. Radomska, S. Glab, Optical biosensors based on Prus-sian Blue films, Analyst 126 (2001) 1080–1085.
25. C. Stamm, K. Seiler, W. Simmon, Enzymatic biosensor for urea based on an ammonium ion-selective bulk optode membrane, Anal. Chim. Acta 282 (1993) 229–237.
26. D.P.A. Correia, J.M.C.S. Magalhaes, A.A.S.C. Machado, Array of potentiometric sensors for simultaneous analysis of urea and potassium, Talanta 67 (2005) 773–782.
27. B. Lui, R. Hu, J. Deng, Studies on a potentiometric urea biosensor based on an ammonia electrode and urease, immobilized on a -aluminum oxide matrix, Anal. Chim. Acta 341 (1997) 161–169.
28. T. Osaka, S. Komaba, M. Seyama, K. Tanabe, High-sensitivity urea sensor based on the composite film of electroinactivepolypyrrole with polyion complex, Sens. Actuators B 36 (1996) 463–469.
29. A.P. Soldatkin, J. Montorial, W. Sant, C. Martelet, N. Jaffrezic-Renault, A novel urea sensitive biosensor with extended dynamic range based on recombinant urease and ISFETs, Biosens. Bioelectron. 19 (2003) 131–135.
30. S. Zamponi, B.L. Ciero, M. Mascini, L.D. Ciana, S. Sacco, Urea solid-state biosensor suitable for continuous dialysis control, Talanta 43 (1996) 1373–1377.
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