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Current Trends in Science and Technology

an Open Access Publication ISSN: 0976-9730 | 0976-9498

Physics

The Fabrication of Composite Graphite-PANI- AgNO3 particle based Urea Bio-Sensor

U.N. Shelke
Department of Physics Research Center, Ahmednagar College Ahmednagar(M.S.) India
K.S. Paithankar
Department of Physics Research Center, Ahmednagar College Ahmednagar(M.S.) India
V.B. Deshmukh
Department of Physics Research Center, Ahmednagar College Ahmednagar(M.S.) India
V.K. Gade
Department of Physics, Shri Anand College, Pathardi (M.S.) India
Online First: January 24, 2018
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Abstract

A novel electrochemical urea biosensor based on graphite paste electrode modified with silver nitrate nano particles (AgNO3) and polyaniline (PANI) has been developed for selective and quantitative recognition of urea by immobilizing enzyme urease for monitoring the amperometric response. Urease immobilization on electrode was investigated using a amperometric method, and factors affecting its immobilization such as potential, pH was discussed in detail. Organized materials were characterized by analytical techniques such as FT-IR, UV and SEM analyses. The performance of the developed urea biosensor was evaluated, and the obtained urea biosensor exhibited shorter response time (3 s), wider range 0.1-30 µM and the detection limit were found to be 1x10-9M.  About 90% of the enzyme activity is retained for about 60 days.

Keyword : Amperometric; biosensor; immobilization.

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Jan 24, 2018
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Jan 24, 2018
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References

1. Svancara, K. Vytras,ˇ K. Kalcher, A. Walcarius, J. Wang, Electroanalysis 21 (2009) 7–28. 2. Nayan S. Gadhari, Bankim J. Sanghavi, Ashwini K. SrivastavaAnalyticachimecaActa 703(2011)31-40. 3. B. Lakard, G. Herlem, S. Lakard, A. Antoniou, B. Fahys, Urea potentiomet-ric biosensor based on modified electrodes with urease immobilized on polyethylenimine films, Biosens. Bioelectron. 19 (2004) 1641–1647. 4. Sehitogullari, A.H. Uslan, Preparation of a potentiometric immobilized urease electrode and urea determination in serum, Talanta 57 (2002) 1039–1044. 5. S.B. Adeloju, S.J. Shaw, Polypyrrole-based potentiometric biosensor for urea, part 2, Anal. Chem. Acta 281 (1993) 621–627. 6. Audrey Sassolas, Beatriz Prieto-Simón, Jean-Louis MartyAmerican Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 3, (2012) 210-232. 7. D. K. Bandgar, G. D. Khuspe, R. C. Pawar, C. S. Lee, V. B. Patil Facile and novel route for preparation of a no structured polyaniline (PANI) thin electrodes Applied Nanoscience 4, (1), (2014) 27-36. 8. S.K. Shukla, AnandBharadvaj, AshutoshTiwari, G.K. Parashar, G.C. Dubey Synthesis and characterization of highly crystalline polyaniline electrode promising for humid sensor Adv. Mat. Letts. 1(2) (2010)129-134. 9. V.K. Gade, D.J. Shirale, P.D. Gaikwad, P.A. Savale, K.P. Kakde, H.J. Kharat, M.D. Shirsat, Immobilization of GOD on electrochemically synthesized Ppy–PVS composite film by cross-linking via gluteraldehyde for determination of glucose. Reactive & Functional Polymers 66 (2006) 1420–1426. 10. Rajesh, V. Bisht, W. Takashima, K. Kaneto, An amperometric urea biosensor based on covalent immobilization of urease onto an electrochemically pre-pared copolymer poly(N-3-aminopropyl pyrrole-co-pyrrole) film, Biomaterials 26 (2005) 3683–3690. 11. B. Xie, B. Danielsson, An integrated thermal biosensor array for multianalyte determination demonstrated with glucose, urea and penicillin, Anal. Lett. 29 (1996) 1921–1932. 12. B. Xie, M. Mecklenburg, B. Danielsson, O. Ohman, P. Nolin, F. Winquist, Develop-ment of an integrated thermal biosensor for the simultaneous determination of multiple analytes, Analyst 120 (1995) 155–160. 13. S.P. Fulton, C.L. Cooney, J.C. Waever, Thermal enzyme probe with differential temperature measurements in a laminar flow-through cell, Anal. Chem. 52 (1980) 505–508. 14. S.B. Adeloju, S.J. Shaw, G.G. Wallace, Polypyrrole-based amperometric flow injection biosensor for urea, Anal. Chim. Acta 323 (1996) 107–113. 15. F. Kuralay, H. Ozyoruk, A. Yildiz, Amperometric enzyme electrode for urea determination using immobilized urease in poly(vinylferrocenium) film, Sens. Actuators B 114 (2006) 500–506. 16. P. Bertocchi, D. Compagnone, G. Palleshi, Amperometric ammonium ion and urea determination with enzyme-based probes, Biosens. Bioelectron. 11 (1996) 1–11. 17. Rajesh, V. Bisht, W. Takashima, K. Kaneto, Development of a potentiometric urea biosensor based on copolymer poly(N-3-aminopropyl pyrrole-co-pyrrole) film, React. Funct. Polym. 62 (2005) 51–59. 18. S.B. Adeloju, S.J. Shaw, G.G. Wallace, Polypyrrole-based potentiometric biosensor for urea: part 2. Analytical optimization, Anal. Chim. Acta 281 (1993) 621–627. 19. S. Komaba, M. Seyama, T. Momma, T. Osaka, Potentiometric biosensor for urea based on electropolymerizedelectroinactivepolypyrrole, Electrochim. Acta 42 (1997) 383–388. 20. M. Battilotti, C. Colapicchioni, I. Giannini, F. Porcelli, L. Campanella, M. Cordatore, F. Mazzei, M. Tomassetti, Characterization of biosensors based on membranes containing a conducting polymer, Anal. Chim. Acta 221 (1989) 157–161 21. N.F. Sheppard Jr., D.J. Mears, A. Guiseppi-Elie, Model of an immobilized enzyme conductimetric urea biosensor, Biosens. Bioeletron. 11 (1996) 967–979. 22. A.S. Jdanova, S. Poyard, A.P. Soldatkin, N. Jaffrezic-Renault, C. Martelet, Conduc-tometric urea sensor. Use of additional membranes for the improvement of its analytical characteristics, Anal. Chim. Acta 321 (1996) 35–40. 23. M.M. Castillo-Ortega, D.E. Rodriguez, J.C. Encinas, M. Plascencia, F.A. Mendez-Velarde, R. Olayo, Conductometric uric acid and urea biosensor prepared from electroconductive polyaniline–poly(n-butyl methacrylate) composites, Sens. Actuators B 85 (2005) 19–25. 24. R. Konck, T. Lenarczuk, A. Radomska, S. Glab, Optical biosensors based on Prus-sian Blue films, Analyst 126 (2001) 1080–1085. 25. C. Stamm, K. Seiler, W. Simmon, Enzymatic biosensor for urea based on an ammonium ion-selective bulk optode membrane, Anal. Chim. Acta 282 (1993) 229–237. 26. D.P.A. Correia, J.M.C.S. Magalhaes, A.A.S.C. Machado, Array of potentiometric sensors for simultaneous analysis of urea and potassium, Talanta 67 (2005) 773–782. 27. B. Lui, R. Hu, J. Deng, Studies on a potentiometric urea biosensor based on an ammonia electrode and urease, immobilized on a -aluminum oxide matrix, Anal. Chim. Acta 341 (1997) 161–169. 28. T. Osaka, S. Komaba, M. Seyama, K. Tanabe, High-sensitivity urea sensor based on the composite film of electroinactivepolypyrrole with polyion complex, Sens. Actuators B 36 (1996) 463–469. 29. A.P. Soldatkin, J. Montorial, W. Sant, C. Martelet, N. Jaffrezic-Renault, A novel urea sensitive biosensor with extended dynamic range based on recombinant urease and ISFETs, Biosens. Bioelectron. 19 (2003) 131–135. 30. S. Zamponi, B.L. Ciero, M. Mascini, L.D. Ciana, S. Sacco, Urea solid-state biosensor suitable for continuous dialysis control, Talanta 43 (1996) 1373–1377. 31. W.-J. Cho, H.-J. Huang, An amperometric urea biosensor based on a polyaniline-perfluorosulfonatedionomer composite electrode, Anal. Chem. 70 (1998) 3946–3951.
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References

1. Svancara, K. Vytras,ˇ K. Kalcher, A. Walcarius, J. Wang, Electroanalysis 21 (2009) 7–28.
2. Nayan S. Gadhari, Bankim J. Sanghavi, Ashwini K. SrivastavaAnalyticachimecaActa 703(2011)31-40.
3. B. Lakard, G. Herlem, S. Lakard, A. Antoniou, B. Fahys, Urea potentiomet-ric biosensor based on modified electrodes with urease immobilized on polyethylenimine films, Biosens. Bioelectron. 19 (2004) 1641–1647.
4. Sehitogullari, A.H. Uslan, Preparation of a potentiometric immobilized urease electrode and urea determination in serum, Talanta 57 (2002) 1039–1044.
5. S.B. Adeloju, S.J. Shaw, Polypyrrole-based potentiometric biosensor for urea, part 2, Anal. Chem. Acta 281 (1993) 621–627.
6. Audrey Sassolas, Beatriz Prieto-Simón, Jean-Louis MartyAmerican Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 3, (2012) 210-232.
7. D. K. Bandgar, G. D. Khuspe, R. C. Pawar, C. S. Lee, V. B. Patil Facile and novel route for preparation of a no structured polyaniline (PANI) thin electrodes Applied Nanoscience 4, (1), (2014) 27-36.
8. S.K. Shukla, AnandBharadvaj, AshutoshTiwari, G.K. Parashar, G.C. Dubey Synthesis and characterization of highly crystalline polyaniline electrode promising for humid sensor Adv. Mat. Letts. 1(2) (2010)129-134.
9. V.K. Gade, D.J. Shirale, P.D. Gaikwad, P.A. Savale, K.P. Kakde, H.J. Kharat, M.D. Shirsat, Immobilization of GOD on electrochemically synthesized Ppy–PVS composite film by cross-linking via gluteraldehyde for determination of glucose. Reactive & Functional Polymers 66 (2006) 1420–1426.
10. Rajesh, V. Bisht, W. Takashima, K. Kaneto, An amperometric urea biosensor based on covalent immobilization of urease onto an electrochemically pre-pared copolymer poly(N-3-aminopropyl pyrrole-co-pyrrole) film, Biomaterials 26 (2005) 3683–3690.
11. B. Xie, B. Danielsson, An integrated thermal biosensor array for multianalyte determination demonstrated with glucose, urea and penicillin, Anal. Lett. 29 (1996) 1921–1932.
12. B. Xie, M. Mecklenburg, B. Danielsson, O. Ohman, P. Nolin, F. Winquist, Develop-ment of an integrated thermal biosensor for the simultaneous determination of multiple analytes, Analyst 120 (1995) 155–160.
13. S.P. Fulton, C.L. Cooney, J.C. Waever, Thermal enzyme probe with differential temperature measurements in a laminar flow-through cell, Anal. Chem. 52 (1980) 505–508.
14. S.B. Adeloju, S.J. Shaw, G.G. Wallace, Polypyrrole-based amperometric flow injection biosensor for urea, Anal. Chim. Acta 323 (1996) 107–113.
15. F. Kuralay, H. Ozyoruk, A. Yildiz, Amperometric enzyme electrode for urea determination using immobilized urease in poly(vinylferrocenium) film, Sens. Actuators B 114 (2006) 500–506.
16. P. Bertocchi, D. Compagnone, G. Palleshi, Amperometric ammonium ion and urea determination with enzyme-based probes, Biosens. Bioelectron. 11 (1996) 1–11.
17. Rajesh, V. Bisht, W. Takashima, K. Kaneto, Development of a potentiometric urea biosensor based on copolymer poly(N-3-aminopropyl pyrrole-co-pyrrole) film, React. Funct. Polym. 62 (2005) 51–59.
18. S.B. Adeloju, S.J. Shaw, G.G. Wallace, Polypyrrole-based potentiometric biosensor for urea: part 2. Analytical optimization, Anal. Chim. Acta 281 (1993) 621–627.
19. S. Komaba, M. Seyama, T. Momma, T. Osaka, Potentiometric biosensor for urea based on electropolymerizedelectroinactivepolypyrrole, Electrochim. Acta 42 (1997) 383–388.
20. M. Battilotti, C. Colapicchioni, I. Giannini, F. Porcelli, L. Campanella, M. Cordatore, F. Mazzei, M. Tomassetti, Characterization of biosensors based on membranes containing a conducting polymer, Anal. Chim. Acta 221 (1989) 157–161
21. N.F. Sheppard Jr., D.J. Mears, A. Guiseppi-Elie, Model of an immobilized enzyme conductimetric urea biosensor, Biosens. Bioeletron. 11 (1996) 967–979.
22. A.S. Jdanova, S. Poyard, A.P. Soldatkin, N. Jaffrezic-Renault, C. Martelet, Conduc-tometric urea sensor. Use of additional membranes for the improvement of its analytical characteristics, Anal. Chim. Acta 321 (1996) 35–40.
23. M.M. Castillo-Ortega, D.E. Rodriguez, J.C. Encinas, M. Plascencia, F.A. Mendez-Velarde, R. Olayo, Conductometric uric acid and urea biosensor prepared from electroconductive polyaniline–poly(n-butyl methacrylate) composites, Sens. Actuators B 85 (2005) 19–25.
24. R. Konck, T. Lenarczuk, A. Radomska, S. Glab, Optical biosensors based on Prus-sian Blue films, Analyst 126 (2001) 1080–1085.
25. C. Stamm, K. Seiler, W. Simmon, Enzymatic biosensor for urea based on an ammonium ion-selective bulk optode membrane, Anal. Chim. Acta 282 (1993) 229–237.
26. D.P.A. Correia, J.M.C.S. Magalhaes, A.A.S.C. Machado, Array of potentiometric sensors for simultaneous analysis of urea and potassium, Talanta 67 (2005) 773–782.
27. B. Lui, R. Hu, J. Deng, Studies on a potentiometric urea biosensor based on an ammonia electrode and urease, immobilized on a -aluminum oxide matrix, Anal. Chim. Acta 341 (1997) 161–169.
28. T. Osaka, S. Komaba, M. Seyama, K. Tanabe, High-sensitivity urea sensor based on the composite film of electroinactivepolypyrrole with polyion complex, Sens. Actuators B 36 (1996) 463–469.
29. A.P. Soldatkin, J. Montorial, W. Sant, C. Martelet, N. Jaffrezic-Renault, A novel urea sensitive biosensor with extended dynamic range based on recombinant urease and ISFETs, Biosens. Bioelectron. 19 (2003) 131–135.
30. S. Zamponi, B.L. Ciero, M. Mascini, L.D. Ciana, S. Sacco, Urea solid-state biosensor suitable for continuous dialysis control, Talanta 43 (1996) 1373–1377.
31. W.-J. Cho, H.-J. Huang, An amperometric urea biosensor based on a polyaniline-perfluorosulfonatedionomer composite electrode, Anal. Chem. 70 (1998) 3946–3951.
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