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Current Trends in Science and Technology

an Open Access Publication ISSN: 0976-9730 | 0976-9498

Botany (Plant Science)

Antifungal activity of plant essential oils against Fusarium oxysporum schlecht. and Aspergillus niger van tiegh. from papaya

Sabita Regmi
Central Department of Botany Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal Corresponding author: j.sanjay99@yahoo.com
Sanjay Kumar Jha
Central Department of Botany Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal
Online First: January 13, 2018
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Abstract

The essential oil of leaves of five medicinal plants specifically Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapff., Mentha spicata L., Cinnamomum tamala (Buch-Ham.) Nees., Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. and Artemisia indica Willd was applied as in-vitro antifungal activity to examine the effect of the oils to control postharvest rots in papaya caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. and Aspergillus niger van Tiegh. The pathogens were isolated from infected papaya fruits obtained from local markets. The essential oils were extracted from the Clevenger apparatus. Pathogenicity test was confirmed by inoculating the pathogen into healthy papaya fruit. The assessment of fungitoxicity was carried out by poison food technique using five different proportions of each 2.5µl/ml, 5µl/ml, 10µl/ml, 20µl/ml 40µl/ml and control to determine percentage inhibition of mycelial growth of test fungi. All the tested oil showed significant antifungal effect (P<0.05) over both test fungi. Among all five essential oils, Cymbopogon citratus showed the most effective antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum which inhibited 100% mycelial growth at 40µl/ml. Furthermore, Mentha spicata performed best antifungal effect to control Aspergillus niger which inhibited the mycelial growth by 92.93% at 40µl/ml concentration.

Keyword : Antifungal activity, in-vitro, mycelial growth, hydro-distillation, percentage inhibition, poisoned food technique.

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Jan 13, 2018
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Jan 13, 2018
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References

1. Barnett, H. L. and Hunter, B. B. (1972) Illustrated genera of imperfect fungi. Burgess Publishing Co., Broken Arrow, USA. 2. Daferera, D. J., Ziogas, B. N. and Polissiou, M. G. (2003). The effectiveness of plant essential oils on the growth of Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium sp. and Clavibacter michiganensis sub sp. michiganensis. Crop protection, pp. 22: 39-44. 3. Ellis, D.M. (1971) Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes. Commonwealth Mycological Institute Kew, Survey, England. 4. FAO, (2013) UN Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database. 5. Grover, A. and Moore, J.D. (1962) Taximetric studies of fungicides against Brown rot organism Sclerotina fruticola. Phytopathology, 52, pp. 876-880. 6. Krishna, K. L., Paridhavi, M., & Patel, J. A. (2008) Review on nutritional, medicinal and pharmacological properties of Papaya (Carica papaya L.). Natural Product Radiance, 7, pp. 364-373. 7. Lewis, W.H., and M.P. Elvin-Lewis. (1997) Medical Botany: Plants Affecting Man’s Health. John Wiley & Sons, New York. pp.515. 8. Lim, T. K. (2012). Edible medicinal and non-medicinal plants. New York, NY, USA Springer, 1, pp.656-687. 9. Mahmoudi, E., Ahmadi, A., and Naderi, D. (2012). Effect of Zataria multiflora essential oil on Alternaria alternata in vitro and in an assay on tomato fruits. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 119, pp. 53-58. 10. Mezhlumyan, L. G., Kasymova, T. D. and Yuldashev, P. K. (2003). Proteinases from Carica papaya latex. Chemistry of natural compounds, 39, pp. 223-228. 11. Paviani, L., Pergher S.B.C and Dariva C. (2006). Application of molecular sieves in the fractionation of lemongrass oil from high-pressure carbon dioxide extraction. Brazillian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 23, pp. 219-225. 12. Piccaglia, R., Marotti, M., Giovanelli, E., Deans, S. G., and Eaglesham, E. (1993). Antibacterial and antioxidant properties of Mediterranean aromatic plants. Industrial crops and Products, 2, pp. 47-50. 13. Rao, G.P and Srivastava, A.K. (1994). Toxicity of essential oils of higher plants against fungal pathogens of sugarcane. Current Trends in Sugarcane Pathology, pp. 347-365. 14. Rasooli, I. and Abyaneh, M. R. (2004). Inhibitory effects of thyme oils on growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus. Food control, 15, pp. 479- 483. 15. Ristic, M. D., Duletic-Lausevic, S., Knezevic-Vukcevic, J., Marin, P. D., Simic, D., Vukojevic, J. and Vajs, V. (2000). Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and ethanol extract of Phlomis fruticosa L. (Lamiaceae). Phytotherapy Research, 14, pp. 267-271. 16. Sankat, C. K. and Maharaj, R. (1997). Papaya. In: S.K. Mitra (Ed.), Postharvest physiology and storage of tropical and subtropical fruits. pp. 167-169. U.K: CAB International, 17. Silva, J. D., Rashid, Z., Nhut, D. T., Sivakumar, D., Gera, A., Souza, M. T. and Tennant, P. (2007). Papaya (Carica papaya L.) biology and biotechnology. Tree and Forestry Science and Biotechnology, 1, pp. 47-73. 18. Snowdon, A. L. (1990). Post-Harvest Diseases and Disorders of fruits and Vegetables: Volume 1: General Introduction and Fruits. Wolfie Scientific Ltd. 19. Tripathi, P., Dubey, N.K. and Shukla, A.K. (2008). Use of some essential oils as postharvest botanical fungicides in the management of grey mould of grapes caused by Botrytis cinerea, World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 24, pp. 39-46.
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References

1. Barnett, H. L. and Hunter, B. B. (1972) Illustrated genera of imperfect fungi. Burgess Publishing Co., Broken Arrow, USA.
2. Daferera, D. J., Ziogas, B. N. and Polissiou, M. G. (2003). The effectiveness of plant essential oils on the growth of Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium sp. and Clavibacter michiganensis sub sp. michiganensis. Crop protection, pp. 22: 39-44.
3. Ellis, D.M. (1971) Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes. Commonwealth Mycological Institute Kew, Survey, England.
4. FAO, (2013) UN Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database.
5. Grover, A. and Moore, J.D. (1962) Taximetric studies of fungicides against Brown rot organism Sclerotina fruticola. Phytopathology, 52, pp. 876-880.
6. Krishna, K. L., Paridhavi, M., & Patel, J. A. (2008) Review on nutritional, medicinal and pharmacological properties of Papaya (Carica papaya L.). Natural Product Radiance, 7, pp. 364-373.
7. Lewis, W.H., and M.P. Elvin-Lewis. (1997) Medical Botany: Plants Affecting Man’s Health. John Wiley & Sons, New York. pp.515.
8. Lim, T. K. (2012). Edible medicinal and non-medicinal plants. New York, NY, USA Springer, 1, pp.656-687.
9. Mahmoudi, E., Ahmadi, A., and Naderi, D. (2012). Effect of Zataria multiflora essential oil on Alternaria alternata in vitro and in an assay on tomato fruits. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 119, pp. 53-58.
10. Mezhlumyan, L. G., Kasymova, T. D. and Yuldashev, P. K. (2003). Proteinases from Carica papaya latex. Chemistry of natural compounds, 39, pp. 223-228.
11. Paviani, L., Pergher S.B.C and Dariva C. (2006). Application of molecular sieves in the fractionation of lemongrass oil from high-pressure carbon dioxide extraction. Brazillian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 23, pp. 219-225.
12. Piccaglia, R., Marotti, M., Giovanelli, E., Deans, S. G., and Eaglesham, E. (1993). Antibacterial and antioxidant properties of Mediterranean aromatic plants. Industrial crops and Products, 2, pp. 47-50.
13. Rao, G.P and Srivastava, A.K. (1994). Toxicity of essential oils of higher plants against fungal pathogens of sugarcane. Current Trends in Sugarcane Pathology, pp. 347-365.
14. Rasooli, I. and Abyaneh, M. R. (2004). Inhibitory effects of thyme oils on growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus. Food control, 15, pp. 479- 483.
15. Ristic, M. D., Duletic-Lausevic, S., Knezevic-Vukcevic, J., Marin, P. D., Simic, D., Vukojevic, J. and Vajs, V. (2000). Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and ethanol extract of Phlomis fruticosa L. (Lamiaceae). Phytotherapy Research, 14, pp. 267-271.
16. Sankat, C. K. and Maharaj, R. (1997). Papaya. In: S.K. Mitra (Ed.), Postharvest physiology and storage of tropical and subtropical fruits. pp. 167-169. U.K: CAB International,
17. Silva, J. D., Rashid, Z., Nhut, D. T., Sivakumar, D., Gera, A., Souza, M. T. and Tennant, P. (2007). Papaya (Carica papaya L.) biology and biotechnology. Tree and Forestry Science and Biotechnology, 1, pp. 47-73.
18. Snowdon, A. L. (1990). Post-Harvest Diseases and Disorders of fruits and Vegetables: Volume 1: General Introduction and Fruits. Wolfie Scientific Ltd.
19. Tripathi, P., Dubey, N.K. and Shukla, A.K. (2008). Use of some essential oils as postharvest botanical fungicides in the management of grey mould of grapes caused by Botrytis cinerea, World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 24, pp. 39-46.
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